The Story Of The Battle Of Trafalgar


In 1803 the short-lived Peace of Amiens came to an end, and Nelson was

re-appointed to the command of the Mediterranean fleet. Hoisting his

flag upon the Victory he busied himself for some time in preventing a

combination of the French fleets. Notwithstanding his vigilance, the

French ships escaped from Toulon and joined with those of Cadiz. Nelson

followed them to the Wes
Indies, but they were evidently more inclined

to fence than to fight, and so contrived to elude him. Nelson, weary of

cruising in search of the enemy, gave up the chase, and returned to

England determined to rest awhile and recoup. All his stores were

brought up from the Victory, and he found in his house at Merton the

rest he required. Many days had not elapsed before Captain Blackwood, on

his way to London with despatches, called on him at five in the morning.

Nelson, who was already dressed, exclaimed the moment he saw him: "I am

sure you bring me news of the French and Spanish fleets! I think I shall

yet have to beat them!" They had refitted at Vigo after an indecisive

action with Sir Robert Calder, then proceeded to Ferrol, brought out the

squadron from thence, and with it entered Cadiz in safety. "Depend on

it, Blackwood," he repeatedly said, "I shall yet give M. Villeneuve a

drubbing." But, when Blackwood had left him, he wanted resolution to

declare his wishes to Lady Hamilton and his sisters, and endeavoured to

drive away the thought. He had done enough; he said, "Let the man trudge

it who has lost his budget!" His countenance belied his lips and as he

was pacing one of the walks in the garden, which he used to call the

quarter-deck, Lady Hamilton came up to him and told him she saw he was

uneasy. He smiled, and said, "No, he was as happy as possible; he was

surrounded by those he loved, his health was better since he had been on

shore, and he would not give sixpence to call the king his uncle." She

replied that she did not believe him, that she knew he was longing to

get at the combined fleets, that he considered them as his own property,

that he would be miserable if any man but himself did the business, and

that he ought to have them as the price and reward of his two years'

long watching and his hard chase. "Nelson," said she, "however we may

lament your absence, offer your services; they will be accepted and you

will gain a quiet heart by it; you will have a glorious victory, and

then you may return here and be happy."

His services were as willingly accepted as they were offered; and Lord

Barham, giving him the list of the navy, desired him to choose his own

officers. "Choose yourself, my lord," was his reply; "the same spirit

actuates the whole profession; you cannot choose wrong."

Early on September 14th Nelson reached Portsmouth, and having despatched

his business on shore, endeavoured to elude the populace by taking a

by-way to the beach; but a crowd collected in his train, pressing

forward to obtain sight of his face; many were in tears, and many knelt

down before him and blessed him as he passed. England has had many

heroes, but never one who so entirely possessed the love of his

fellow-countrymen as Nelson. All men knew that his heart was as humane

as it was fearless; that there was not in his nature the slightest alloy

of selfishness or cupidity; but that, with perfect and entire devotion,

he served his country with all his heart, and with all his soul, and

with all his strength; and, therefore, they loved him as truly and as

fervently as he loved England. They pressed upon the parapet to gaze

after him when his barge pushed off, and he was returning their cheers

by waving his hat. The sentinels who endeavoured to prevent them from

trespassing upon this ground, were wedged among the crowd; and an

officer, who, not very prudently upon such an occasion, ordered them to

drive the people down with their bayonets, was compelled speedily to

retreat, for the people would not be debarred from gazing till the last

moment upon the hero--the darling hero--of England!

Nelson arrived off Cadiz on September 29th--his birthday. Fearing that

if the enemy knew his force they might be deterred from venturing to

sea, he kept out of sight of land, desired Collingwood to fire no salute

and hoist no colours; and wrote to Gibraltar to request that the force

of the fleet might not be inserted there in the Gazette. His reception

in the Mediterranean fleet was as gratifying as the farewell of his

countrymen at Portsmouth: the officers, who came on board to welcome

him, forgot his rank as commander in their joy at seeing him again. On

the day of his arrival, Villeneuve received orders to put to sea the

first opportunity. Villeneuve, however, hesitated when he heard that

Nelson had resumed the command. He called a council of war; and their

determination was, that it would not be expedient to leave Cadiz unless

they had reason to believe themselves stronger by one-third than the

British force.

In the public measures of this country secrecy is seldom practicable,

and seldom attempted: here, however, by the precautions of Nelson and

the wise measures of the Admiralty, the enemy were for once kept in

ignorance; for, as the ships appointed to reinforce the Mediterranean

fleet were despatched singly, each as soon as it was ready, their

collected number was not stated in the newspapers and their arrival was

not known to the enemy. But the enemy knew that Admiral Louis, with six

sail, had been detached for stores and water to Gibraltar. Accident also

contributed to make the French admiral doubt whether Nelson himself had

actually taken the command. An American, lately arrived from England,

maintained that it was impossible--for he had seen him only a few days

before in London, and at that time there was no rumour of his going

again to sea.

The station which Nelson had chosen was some fifty or sixty miles to the

west of Cadiz, near Cape St. Mary's. At this distance he hoped to decoy

the enemy out, while he guarded against the danger of being caught with

a westerly wind near Cadiz and driven within the Straits. The blockade

of the port was rigorously enforced, in hopes that the combined fleet

might be forced to sea by want. The Danish vessels, therefore, which

were carrying provisions from the French ports in the bay, under the

name of Danish property, to all the little ports from Ayamonte to

Algeziras, from whence they were conveyed in coasting boats to Cadiz,

were seized. Without this proper exertion of power, the blockade would

have been rendered nugatory by the advantage thus taken of the neutral

flag. The supplies from France were thus effectually cut off. There was

now every indication that the enemy would speedily venture out: officers

and men were in the highest spirits at the prospect of giving them a

decisive blow; such, indeed, as would put an end to all further contest

upon the seas.

"I verily believe," said Nelson, writing on October 6th, "that the

country will soon be put to some expense on my account; either a

monument, or a new pension and honours; for I have not the smallest

doubt but that a very few days, almost hours, will put us in battle. The

success no man can insure; but for the fighting them, if they can be got

at, I pledge myself. The sooner the better: I don't like to have these

things upon my mind."

At this time he was not without some cause of anxiety; he was in want of

frigates--the eyes of the fleet, as he always called them--to the want

of which the enemy before were indebted for their escape and Bonaparte

for his arrival in Egypt. He had only twenty-three ships--others were on

the way; but they might come too late; and though Nelson never doubted

of victory, mere victory was not what he looked to, he wanted to

annihilate the enemy's fleet.

On the 9th, Nelson sent Collingwood what he called, in his diary, the

Nelson-touch. "I send you," said he, "my plan of attack, as far as a man

dare venture to guess at the very uncertain position the enemy may be

found in; but it is to place you perfectly at ease respecting my

intentions, and to give full scope to your judgment for carrying them

into effect. We can, my dear Coll, have no little jealousies. We have

only one great object in view--that of annihilating our enemies and

getting a glorious peace for our country. No man has more confidence in

another than I have in you; and no man will render your services more

justice than your very old friend, Nelson and Bronte." The order of

sailing was to be the order of battle; the fleet in two lines with an

advanced squadron of eight of the fastest sailing two-deckers. The

second in command, having the entire direction of his line, was to break

through the enemy, about the twelfth ship from their rear; he would lead

through the centre, and the advanced squadron was to cut off three or

four ahead of the centre. This plan was to be adapted to the strength of

the enemy, so that they should always be one-fourth superior to those

whom they cut off. Nelson said that "his admirals and captains, knowing

his precise object to be that of a close and decisive action, would

supply any deficiency of signals and act accordingly. In case signals

cannot be seen or clearly understood, no captain can do wrong if he

places his ship alongside that of an enemy." One of the last orders of

this admirable man was that the name and family of every officer,

seaman, and marine who might be killed or wounded in action, should be,

as soon as possible, returned to him, in order to be transmitted to the

chairman of the patriotic fund, for the benefit of the sufferer or his


About half-past nine in the morning of the 19th, the Mars, being the

nearest to the fleet of the ships which formed the line of communication

with the frigates in-shore, repeated the signal that the enemy were

coming out of port. The wind was at this time very light, with partial

breezes, mostly from the south-south-west. Nelson ordered the signal to

be made for a chase in the south-east quarter. About two the repeating

ships announced that the enemy were at sea. All night the British fleet

continued under all sail, steering to the south-east. At daybreak they

were in the entrance of the Straits, but the enemy were not in sight.

About seven one of the frigates made signal that the enemy were bearing

north. Upon this the Victory hove to; and shortly afterwards Nelson

made sail again to the northward. In the afternoon the wind blew fresh

from the south-west, and the English began to fear that the foe might be

forced to return to port. A little before sunset, however, Blackwood, in

the Euryalus, telegraphed that they appeared determined to go to the

westward. "And that," said the admiral in his diary, "they shall not do

if it is in the power of Nelson and Bronte to prevent them." Nelson had

signified to Blackwood that he depended upon him to keep sight of the

enemy. They were observed so well that all their motions were made known

to him; and, as they wore twice, he inferred that they were aiming to

keep the port of Cadiz open and would retreat there as soon as they saw

the British fleet; for this reason he was very careful not to approach

near enough to be seen by them during the night. At daybreak the

combined fleets were distinctly seen from the Victory's deck, formed

in a close line of battle ahead, on the starboard tack, about twelve

miles to leeward and standing to the south. Our fleet consisted of

twenty-seven sail of the line and four frigates; theirs of thirty-three

and seven large frigates. Their superiority was greater in size and

weight of metal than in numbers. They had four thousand troops on board;

and the best riflemen who could be procured, many of them Tyrolese, were

dispersed through the ships.

Soon after daylight Nelson came upon deck. October 21st was a festival

in his family, because on that day his uncle, Captain Suckling, in the

Dreadnought, with two other line-of-battle ships, had beaten off a

French squadron of four sail of the line and three frigates. Nelson,

with that sort of superstition from which few persons are entirely

exempt, had more than once expressed his persuasion that this was to be

the day of his battle also; and he was well pleased at seeing his

prediction about to be verified. The wind was now from the west, light

breezes, with a long, heavy swell. Signal was made to bear down upon

the enemy in two lines, and the fleet set all sail. Collingwood, in the

Royal Sovereign, led the lee line of thirteen ships; the Victory led

the weather line of fourteen. Having seen that all was as it should be,

Nelson retired to his cabin, and wrote the following prayer:--

"May the great God whom I worship grant to my country and for the

benefit of Europe in general a great and glorious victory, and may no

misconduct in any one tarnish it; and may humanity after victory be the

predominant feature in the British fleet! For myself individually, I

commit my life to Him that made me; and may His blessing alight on my

endeavours for serving my country faithfully! To Him I resign myself and

the just cause which is entrusted to me to defend. Amen. Amen. Amen."

Having thus discharged his devotional duties, he proceeded to recite at

length in his diary the services rendered to him and through him to the

English nation by Lady Hamilton, commending her to the care of the

Government. This entry was witnessed by Henry Blackwood and T. M. Hardy.

Blackwood arrived on board the Victory about six o'clock. He found

Nelson in good spirits, but very calm; not in that exhilaration which he

had felt upon entering into battle at Aboukir and Copenhagen. He knew

that his own life would be particularly aimed at, and seems to have

looked for death with almost as sure an expectation as for victory. His

whole attention was fixed upon the enemy. They tacked to the northward

and formed their line on the larboard tack; thus bringing the shoals of

Trafalgar and St. Pedro under the lee of the British, and keeping the

port of Cadiz open for themselves. This was judiciously done; and

Nelson, aware of the advantages it gave them, made signal to prepare to


Villeneuve was a skilful seaman; worthy of serving a better master and a

better cause. His plan of defence was as well conceived and as original

as the plan of attack. He formed the fleet in a double line; every

alternate ship being about a cable's length to windward of her second

ahead and astern. Nelson, certain of a triumphant issue to the day,

asked Blackwood what he should consider as a victory. That officer

answered, that, considering the handsome way in which battle was offered

by the enemy, their apparent determination for a fair trial of strength

and the situation of the land, he thought it would be a glorious result

if fourteen were captured. He replied: "I shall not be satisfied with

less than twenty." Soon afterwards he asked him if he did not think

there was a signal wanting. Captain Blackwood made answer that he

thought the whole fleet seemed very clearly to understand what they were

about. These words were scarcely spoken before that signal was made

which will be remembered as long as the language, or even the memory, of

England shall endure--Nelson's last signal:--"ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN

WILL DO HIS DUTY!" It was received throughout the fleet with a shout of

answering acclamation, made sublime by the spirit which it breathed and

the feeling which it expressed. "Now," said Lord Nelson, "I can do no

more. We must trust to the great Disposer of all events and the justice

of our cause. I thank God for this opportunity of doing my duty."

The French admiral, from the Bucentaure, beheld the new manner in

which his enemy was advancing--Nelson and Collingwood each leading his

line--and pointing them out to his officers he is said to have exclaimed

that such conduct could not fail to be successful. Yet Villeneuve had

made his own dispositions with the utmost skill, and the fleets under

his command waited for the attack with perfect coolness. Ten minutes

before twelve they opened their fire. Eight or nine of the ships

immediately ahead of the Victory, and across her bows fired single

guns at her, to ascertain whether she was yet within their range. As

soon as Nelson perceived that their shot passed over him, he desired

Blackwood and Captain Prowse, of the Sirius, to repair to their

respective frigates, and, on their way, to tell all the captains of the

line-of-battle ships that he depended on their exertions, and that, if

by the prescribed mode of attack they found it impracticable to get into

action immediately, they might adopt whatever they thought best,

provided it led them quickly and closely alongside an enemy. Standing

on the front poop, Blackwood took him by the hand, saying he hoped soon

to return and find him in possession of twenty prizes. He replied, "God

bless you, Blackwood; I shall never see you again."

Nelson's column was steered about two points more to the north than

Collingwood's, in order to cut off the enemy's escape into Cadiz: the

lee line, therefore, was first engaged. "See," cried Nelson, pointing to

the Royal Sovereign as she steered right for the centre of the enemy's

line, cut through it astern of the Santa Anna, three-decker, and

engaged her at the muzzle of her guns on the starboard side--"See how

that noble fellow, Collingwood, carries his ship into action!"

Collingwood, delighted at being first in the heat of the fire, and

knowing the feelings of his commander and old friend, turned to his

captain, and exclaimed: "Rotherham, what would Nelson give to be here!"

Both these brave officers, perhaps, at this moment, thought of Nelson

with gratitude for a circumstance which had occurred on the preceding

day. Admiral Collingwood, with some of the captains, having gone on

board the Victory to receive instructions, Nelson inquired of him

where his captain was, and was told in reply that they were not upon

good terms with each other. "Terms!" said Nelson; "good terms with each

other!" Immediately he sent a boat for Captain Rotherham, led him, as

soon as he arrived, to Collingwood, and saying: "Look; yonder are the

enemy!" bade them shake hands like Englishmen.

The enemy continued to fire a gun at a time at the Victory, till they

saw that a shot had passed through her main-top-gallant sail; then they

opened their broadsides, aiming chiefly at her rigging, in the hope of

disabling her before she could close with them. Nelson, as usual, had

hoisted several flags, lest one should be shot away. The enemy showed no

colours till late in the action, when they began to feel the necessity

of having them to strike. For this reason, the Santissima Trinidad,

Nelson's old acquaintance, as he used to call her, was distinguishable

only by her four decks; and to the bow of this opponent he ordered the

Victory to be steered. Meantime, an incessant raking fire was kept up

upon the Victory. The admiral's secretary was one of the first who

fell: he was killed by a cannon shot while conversing with Hardy.

Captain Adair of the marines, with the help of a sailor, endeavoured to

remove the body from Nelson's sight, who had a great regard for Mr.

Scott; but he anxiously asked, "Is that poor Scott that's gone?" and

being informed that it was indeed so, exclaimed, "Poor fellow!"

Presently, a double-headed shot struck a party of marines, who were

drawn up on the poop, and killed eight of them: upon which Nelson

immediately desired Captain Adair to disperse his men round the ship,

that they might not suffer so much from being together. A few minutes

afterwards a shot struck the fore-brace bits on the quarter-deck, and

passed between Nelson and Hardy, a splinter from the bit tearing off

Hardy's buckle and bruising his foot. Both stopped and looked anxiously

at each other: each supposed the other to be wounded. Nelson then

smiled, and said: "This is too warm work, Hardy, to last long."

The Victory had not yet returned a single gun; fifty of her men had

been by this time killed or wounded, and her main-top mast with all her

studding sails and their booms shot away. Nelson declared that, in all

his battles, he had seen nothing which surpassed the cool courage of his

crew on this occasion. At four minutes after twelve she opened her fire

from both sides of her deck. It was not possible to break the enemy's

line without running on board one of their ships; Hardy informed him of

this and asked him which he would prefer. Nelson replied: "Take your

choice, Hardy, it does not signify much." The master was ordered to put

the helm to port, and the Victory ran on board the Redoubtable just

as her tiller-ropes were shot away. The French ship received her with a

broadside, then instantly let down her lower-deck ports, for fear of

being boarded through them, and never afterwards fired a great gun

during the action. Her tops, like those of all the enemy's ships, were

filled with riflemen. Nelson never placed musketry in his tops; he had a

strong dislike to the practice; not merely because it endangers setting

fire to the sails, but also because it is a murderous sort of warfare,

by which individuals may suffer and a commander now and then be picked

off, but which never can decide the fate of a general engagement.

Captain Harvey, in the Temeraire, fell on board the Redoubtable on

the other side. Another enemy was in like manner on board the

Temeraire, so that these four ships formed as compact a tier as if

they had been moored together, their heads all lying the same way. The

lieutenants of the Victory seeing this, depressed their guns of the

middle and lower decks, and fired with a diminished charge, lest the

shot should pass through and injure the Temeraire. And because there

was danger that the Redoubtable might take fire from the lower-deck

guns, the muzzles of which touched her side when they were run out, the

fireman of each gun stood ready with a bucket of water, which, as soon

as the gun was discharged, he dashed into the hole made by the shot. An

incessant fire was kept up from the Victory from both sides; her

larboard guns playing upon the Bucentaure and the huge Santissima


It had been part of Nelson's prayer that the British fleet might be

distinguished by humanity in the victory he expected. Setting an example

himself, he twice gave orders to cease firing upon the Redoubtable,

supposing that she had struck, because her great guns were silent; for,

as she carried no flag, there was no means of instantly ascertaining the

fact. From this ship, which he had thus twice spared, he received his

death. A ball fired from her mizen-top, which, in the then situation of

the two vessels, was not more than fifteen yards from that part of the

deck where he was standing, struck the epaulette on his left shoulder,

about a quarter after one, just in the heat of action. He fell upon his

face on the spot which was covered with his poor secretary's blood.

Hardy, who was a few steps from him, turning round, saw three men

raising him up. "They have done for me at last, Hardy!" said he. "I hope

not!" cried Hardy. "Yes," he replied, "my back-bone is shot through!"

Yet even now, not for a moment losing his presence of mind, he

observed, as they were carrying him down the ladder, that the

tiller-ropes, which had been shot away, were not yet replaced, and

ordered that new ones should be rove immediately. Then, that he might

not be seen by the crew, he took out his handkerchief, and covered his

face and his stars. Had he but concealed these badges of honour from the

enemy, England, perhaps, would not have had cause to receive with sorrow

the news of the battle of Trafalgar. The cockpit was crowded with

wounded and dying men, over whose bodies he was with some difficulty

conveyed and laid upon a pallet in the midshipman's berth. It was soon

perceived, upon examination, that the wound was mortal. This, however,

was concealed from all except Captain Hardy, the chaplain, and the

medical attendants. He himself being certain, from the sensation in his

back, and the gush of blood he felt momently within his breast, that no

human care could avail him, insisted that the surgeon should leave him,

and attend to those to whom he might be useful. "For," said he, "you can

do nothing for me." All that could be done was to fan him with paper and

frequently to give him lemonade to alleviate his intense thirst. He was

in great pain, and expressed much anxiety for the event of the action,

which now began to declare itself. As often as a ship struck, the crew

of the Victory hurrahed; and at every hurrah a visible expression of

joy gleamed in the eyes, and marked the countenance of the dying hero.

But he became impatient to see Captain Hardy; and as that officer though

often sent for could not leave the deck, Nelson feared that some fatal

cause prevented him, and repeatedly cried: "Will no one bring Hardy to

me? He must be killed! He is surely dead!" An hour and ten minutes

elapsed from the time when Nelson received his wound before Hardy could

come to him. They shook hands in silence; Hardy in vain struggling to

suppress the feelings of that most painful and yet sublimest moment.

"Well, Hardy," said Nelson, "how goes the day with us?" "Very well,"

replied Hardy; "ten ships have struck, but five of the van have tacked

and show an intention to bear down upon the Victory. I have called

two or three of our fresh ships round, and have no doubt of giving them

a drubbing." "I hope," said Nelson, "none of our ships have struck?"

Hardy answered, "There was no fear of that." Then, and not till then,

Nelson spoke of himself. "I am a dead man, Hardy," said he; "I am going

fast; it will be all over with me soon. Come nearer to me. Let my dear

Lady Hamilton have my hair, and all other things belonging to me." Hardy

observed that he hoped Mr. Beatty could yet hold out some prospect of

life. "Oh, no!" he replied; "it is impossible; my back is shot through.

Beatty will tell you so." Captain Hardy then once more shook hands with

him, and with a heart almost bursting, hastened upon deck.

By this time all feeling below the breast was gone; and Nelson having

made the surgeon ascertain this, said to him, "You know I am gone. I

know it. I feel something rising in my breast" (putting his hand on his

left side) "which tells me so." And upon Beatty's inquiring whether his

pain was very great, he replied, "So great, that he wished he was dead.

Yet," said he, in a lower voice, "one would like to live a little

longer, too!" And after a few minutes, in the same undertone, he added:

"What would become of poor Lady Hamilton if she knew my situation!" Next

to his country, she occupied his thoughts. Captain Hardy, some fifty

minutes after he had left the cockpit, returned, and, again taking the

hand of his dying friend and commander, congratulated him on having

gained a complete victory. How many of the enemy were taken he did not

know, as it was impossible to perceive them distinctly, but fourteen or

fifteen at least. "That's well!" cried Nelson; "but I bargained for

twenty." And then in a stronger voice, he said: "Anchor, Hardy; anchor."

Hardy, upon this, hinted that Admiral Collingwood would take upon

himself the direction of affairs. "Not while I live, Hardy," said the

dying Nelson, ineffectually endeavouring to raise himself from the bed.

"Do you anchor." His previous order for preparing to anchor had shown

how clearly he foresaw the necessity of this. Presently, calling Hardy

back, he said to him, in a low voice: "Don't throw me overboard;" and

he desired that he might be buried by his parents, unless it should

please the king to order otherwise. Then reverting to private

feelings--"Take care of my dear Lady Hamilton, Hardy; take care of poor

Lady Hamilton. Kiss me, Hardy," said he. Hardy knelt down and kissed his

cheek; and Nelson said: "Now I am satisfied. Thank God, I have done my

duty!" Hardy stood over him in silence for a moment or two, then knelt

again, and kissed his forehead. "Who is that?" said Nelson; and being

informed, he replied: "God bless you, Hardy." And Hardy then left him

for ever.

Nelson now desired to be turned upon his right side, and said: "I wish I

had not left the deck; for I shall soon be gone." Death was, indeed,

rapidly approaching. He said to the chaplain: "Doctor, I have not been

a great sinner;" and after a short pause, "Remember that I leave Lady

Hamilton and my daughter Horatia as a legacy to my country." His

articulation now became difficult; but he was distinctly heard to say:

"Thank God, I have done my duty!" Nelson expired at thirty minutes after

four, three hours and a quarter after he had received his wound.

Within a quarter of an hour after Nelson was wounded, about fifty of the

Victory's men fell by the enemy's musketry. They, however, on their

part, were not idle; and it was not long before there were only two

Frenchmen left alive in the mizen-top of the Redoubtable. One of them

was the man who had given the fatal wound; he did not live to boast of

what he had done. An old quarter-master had seen him fire, and easily

recognised him, because he wore a glazed cocked hat and a white frock.

This quarter-master and two midshipmen, Mr. Collingwood and Mr. Pollard,

were the only persons left in the Victory's poop; the two midshipmen

kept firing at the top, and he supplied them with cartridges. One of the

Frenchmen attempting to make his escape down the rigging, was shot by

Mr. Pollard, and fell on the poop. But the old quarter-master, as he

cried out, "That's he, that's he," and pointed at the other, who was

coming forward to fire again, received a shot in his mouth, and fell

dead. Both the midshipmen then fired at the same time, and the fellow

dropped in the top. When they took possession of the prize they went

into the mizen-top, and found him dead, with one ball through his head

and another through his breast.

The Redoubtable struck within twenty minutes after the fatal shot

had been fired from her. During that time she had been twice on fire;

in her forechains, and in her forecastle. The French, as they had

done in other battles, made use in this of fire-balls and other

combustibles--implements of destruction which other nations from a sense

of honour and humanity have laid aside--which add to the sufferings of

the wounded without determining the issue of the combat; which none but

the cruel would employ, and which never can be successful against the

brave. Once they succeeded in setting fire, from the Redoubtable, to

some ropes and canvas on the Victory's booms. The cry ran through the

ship and reached the cockpit. But even this dreadful cry produced no

confusion; the men displayed that perfect self-possession in danger by

which English seamen are characterised; they extinguished the flames on

board their own ship, and then hastened to extinguish them in the enemy,

by throwing buckets of water from the gangway. When the Redoubtable

had struck, it was not practicable to board her from the Victory; for

though the two ships touched, the upper works of both fell in so much

that there was a great space between their gangways, and she could not

be boarded from the lower or middle decks because her ports were down.

Some of our men went to Lieutenant Quilliam and offered to swim under

her bows, and get up there; but it was thought unfit to hazard lives in

this manner.

What our men would have done from gallantry, some of the crew of the

Santissima Trinidad did to save themselves. Unable to stand the

tremendous fire of the Victory, whose larboard guns played against

this great four-decker, and not knowing how else to escape them nor

where else to betake themselves for protection, many of them leapt

overboard and swam to the Victory, and were actually helped up her

sides by the English during the action. The Spaniards began the battle

with less vivacity than their unworthy allies, but continued it with

greater firmness. The Argonauta and Bahama were defended till they

had each lost about four hundred men; the San Juan Nepomuceno lost

three hundred and fifty. Often as the superiority of British courage has

been proved against France upon the seas, it was never more conspicuous

than in this decisive conflict. Five of our ships were engaged muzzle to

muzzle with five of the French. In all five the Frenchmen lowered their

lower-deck ports and deserted their guns; while our men continued

deliberately to load and fire till they had made the victory secure.

The total British loss in the battle of Trafalgar amounted to one

thousand five hundred and eighty-seven. Twenty of the enemy struck.

Unhappily the fleet did not anchor, as Nelson, almost with his dying

breath, had enjoined; a gale came on from the south-west; some of the

prizes went down, some went on shore; one effected its escape into

Cadiz; others were destroyed--four only were saved, and those by the

greatest exertions. The wounded Spaniards were sent ashore, an assurance

being given that they should not serve till regularly exchanged; and the

Spaniards, with a generous feeling which would not, perhaps, have been

found in any other people, offered the use of their hospitals for our

wounded, pledging the honour of Spain that they should be carefully

attended there. When the storm, after the action, drove some of the

prizes upon the coast, they declared that the English, who were thus

thrown into their hands, should not be considered as prisoners of war;

and the Spanish soldiers gave up their own beds to their shipwrecked

enemies. The Spanish vice-admiral, Alva, died of his wounds. Villeneuve

was sent to England and permitted to return to France. The French

government say that he destroyed himself on the way to Paris, dreading

the consequences of a court martial; but there is every reason to

believe that the tyrant, who never acknowledged the loss of the battle

of Trafalgar, added Villeneuve to the numerous victims of his murderous