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The Call To Arms In Our Street
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Where The Tide Turned
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The Capture Of Dun
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Nations Born And Reborn
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Duty
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President Wilson In France
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The Fleet That Lost Its Soul
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A Boy Of Perugia
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A Carol From Flanders
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Just Before The Tide Turned
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Song Of The Aviator
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Four Soldiers
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Harry Lauder Sings
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The Unspeakable Turk






Although the great issues of the war were decided, and victory was
finally won, by the fighting on the western front, the British
campaigns in Palestine and in Mesopotamia were in no small way
responsible for the final result. The fighting in this theater of the
war was against the Turkish allies of Germany. The Turks were
originally one of the Tartar tribes, dwelling in Asia, east of the
Caspian Sea. Many of these tribes passed over into Europe, where they
are now known as the Lapps, the Finns, the Bulgarians, and the Magyars
or Hungarians. More of these Tartar tribes migrated to Asia Minor and
adopted the Mohammedan religion. The Turks were one of these. They
served first as hired soldiers, but were finally united by their
leader, Seljuk, into a strong people called the Seljukian Turks. Their
power grew rapidly and soon they captured the city of Jerusalem. They
also invaded Europe and captured Constantinople, in 1453, where they
have ever since been a menace to civilization.

Less than a year after William II became Emperor of Germany, the
imperial yacht, the Hohenzollern, steamed through the Mediterranean
into the narrow Dardanelles and, saluted by forts on both shores,
passed on to Constantinople, the capital of the Moslem Kalif and the
Sultan of Turkey, Abdul Hamid II.

The head of the Catholic church is called the Pope; the head of the
Eastern church, the Patriarch; and the head of the Mohammedan, the
Kalif. Just as Catholics, no matter of what country they are citizens,
recognize the authority of the Pope in matters of religion, so
Mohammedans, with few exceptions, are guided in these matters by the
Kalif.

William II was accompanied by the Empress, his wife, and this was their
first ceremonial visit to any of the crowned heads of Europe. Why did
the German Kaiser select Abdul Hamid for this high honor?

The Germans were received with great joy. The entire city of
Constantinople was decorated with the gorgeous display that only an
eastern city makes. The visit was evidently greatly appreciated by the
Mohammedan Kalif and the Sultan of Turkey; and his people, at his
orders doubtless, made the Germans realize how proud they were at being
thus honored by the Kaiser.

What attraction brought these two strange monarchs together? And why
was the visit repeated nine years later in 1898? Did William II feel
in 1889 that Abdul Hamid was a man after his own heart, more nearly so
than any other ruler in Europe? And was he sure of it in 1898?

Certain it is, that while the greetings were cordial in 1889, they were
much more so in 1898; for on this second visit, the Kaiser kissed the
Kalif on both cheeks and called him brother. Then after having made
arrangements for the German building and the German control of the
Berlin to Bagdad railway, William II went on to Jerusalem. There he
stood in homage before the Holy Sepulcher, and afterward before the
manger in Bethlehem. A few days later in Damascus, a chief Moslem
city, he spoke to the Mohammedan officers then ruling the Holy Land,
and in the course of his speech said, His Majesty, the Sultan Abdul
Hamid, and the three hundred million Mohammedans who reverence him as
Kalif may be sure that at all times the German Kaiser will be their
friend.

Abdul Hamid was a Turk, a Mohammedan, and a Sultan. As a Turk, he
believed all other people were no better than animals; and that it was
no more of a sin to kill a man, woman, or child of another race than it
was to kill a dog or a rat. As a Mohammedan, he believed that killing
a Christian gained merit in the eyes of Allah (which is the Mohammedan
word for God). And as a Sultan, he remembered how he had lost Serbia,
Bosnia, Bulgaria, and Roumania. These Balkan states together with
Bosnia were formerly a part of Turkey in Europe. Most of their
inhabitants were Christians and were more progressive than the Turks.
As they advanced in education and wealth, they revolted and gained
their independence in 1878. As Turkey lost these, the Sultan feared he
might lose Armenia, his last remaining Christian province. This was
Turkey's Armenian problem. The Sultan attempted to solve it in true
Turkish manner,--adopted later by the Huns in Belgium, but never
carried out so relentlessly as in Armenia.

Between the two visits of Kaiser William II, Abdul Hamid had been able
to put into effect some of the ideas in which he believed. First he
made a plan to kill about two million of his subjects living in
Armenia. Here it was that Noah is said to have landed with the ark on
Mt. Ararat after the flood had partially subsided, and here was a
people called Armenians and a country called Armenia long before the
time of Christ. But the Turk said in the days of Abdul Hamid, There
is no such country as Armenia, and the Armenians were ordered never to
use the word or to speak of their country for it had disappeared, and
they now lived in a Turkish province. Abdul Hamid determined the
people should also disappear.

It seems almost impossible for Americans in the twentieth century to
believe that such a story can be true. They can easily believe it of a
thousand years ago, but not of twenty-five years ago. Yet it is beyond
doubt. Henry Morgenthau, American Ambassador to Turkey during the
first two years of the World War, has written the story of the attempts
by the Turkish government to massacre the Armenian Christians in 1895
and in 1915.

He writes: Abdul Hamid apparently thought there was only one way of
ridding Turkey of the Armenian problem--and that was to rid her of the
Armenians. The physical destruction of two million men, women, and
children by massacres, organized and directed by the state, seemed to
be the one sure way of forestalling the further disruption of the
Turkish Empire. . . . Yet Abdul Hamid was not able to accomplish his
full purpose. Had he had his will, he would have massacred the whole
nation in one hideous orgy.

In 1895-96 nearly two hundred thousand Armenians were put to death on
one pretext or another, usually in the most horrible ways, and in many
cases after the most terrible torture. The entire race would have been
exterminated if Christian Europe and America had not risen in protest.
But no word of protest came from Abdul Hamid's good friend, William II.
Instead, the Kaiser visited, within two years after these terrible
massacres, the monarch who was now called throughout Europe, Abdul the
Damned, and kissing him on both cheeks, called him brother!

Why did the Kaiser love the Sultan and Kalif so greatly? Perhaps
because they were kindred spirits. It certainly could not be because
of Abdul Hamid's knowledge and intellectual power, for he was very
ignorant, and not at all the type of mind that would impress a German.
He was very superstitious and suspicious, always fearing attempts upon
his life. A lot of books on chemistry, imported by an American
missionary, were seized by the Turkish customs officers because they
claimed they were intended to injure the Sultan. When the missionary
asked for an explanation, the officer opened one of the books and
pointed to the expression H[subscript 2]O, which occurred very
frequently in it. Now H[subscript 2]O is the chemical symbol for water
and means that two atoms of hydrogen unite with one atom of oxygen to
form one molecule of water. However, Abdul Hamid, or his officers,
believed that H stood for Hamid, 2 for II, and O for nothing, and that
H[subscript 2]O was a secret way of saying to the Christians in Turkey,
Abdul Hamid II is nothing.

It is also said that Constantinople was lighted only by gas long after
electric lights were used in other large cities, because the red
Sultan, as he was also often called on account of his bloody deeds,
would allow neither dynamite nor dynamos to be brought into the city
where he lived. He knew of the destructive power of dynamite and could
never be made to believe that a dynamo was not equally to be feared!

The German Kaiser was not charmed by the brilliancy and the
intelligence of the Great Assassin. He may have admired his deeds
but he probably loved him for what he thought he could get out of him
and his country. It seems clear now that even in 1889, at the
beginning of his reign, William II began to plan a Greater Germany and
possibly World Domination. Certainly he soon dreamed of a German
Middle Europe reaching from the North Sea to the Persian Gulf and
crossed from Berlin to Bagdad by a German controlled railroad. It
seems too that he realized he must have Turkey as an ally and that to
accomplish his ends, he might possibly be obliged to bring about a Holy
War with all the Mohammedan world fighting the Christian. The
Mohammedans considered the Kaiser one of themselves and referred to him
as His Islamic Majesty. In the World War he attempted to cause this
Holy War but failed because the Mohammedans in Arabia did not recognize
the Sultan of Turkey as Kalif. The two holy cities of the Mohammedans
in Arabia are Mecca where the prophet, Mohammed, was born and Medina
where he died. Whoever rules over these cities is the Mohammedan
Kalif. When the Kaiser attempted to bring on a Holy War, the Arabians
joined the Allies, founded the independent kingdom of Hedjaz, and
recognized its king as the Kalif.

The red Sultan must have known that the Kaiser would not object to
his massacres of the Armenians and the strengthening of Turkish rule,
for these only aided the purposes of Germany. But Abdul Hamid was
forced to abdicate by a revolution of his own people before the
Armenians were exterminated and before the Kaiser's dream was realized.
By 1915, however, the Great Assassin's power was in the hands of
Turks who held the same beliefs and sought to carry out the same plans
as he had in 1895. And now England, France, Russia, and Italy, all
engaged in war, were unable to interfere, and the Turks felt very sure
the United States would not trouble them.

Now Enver Pasha and Taalat Pasha, the real rulers of Turkey, determined
that there should be no blunder or mistake; they would exterminate the
nearly two million Christian Armenians, who were Turkish subjects, and
thus remove a serious problem in the management of Turkey and all
danger of the Armenians rendering assistance to the Allies.

One of the chief indictments of the German government, under William
II, is that it uttered no protest while the Armenian men in the vigor
of life were taken from the villages by the hundred and shot, or killed
in more brutal ways, and the old men, women, and children obliged to
march off to a distant desert part of Asia Minor, or to the malarial
swamps of the Euphrates. Of course, they nearly all died on the way.
About one million Armenians were exterminated in this way in 1915. The
German government could have stopped it by a word. But how could they
say the word? They had hardly finished their Belgian atrocities and
were still deporting men and girls from Belgium and France. No protest
came from the Kaiser, his ministers; or his people.

The Armenians dress very largely in red. A common costume of women and
girls is striking even at a distance because of the amount of red in
it. The same is true to a less degree of the men. The hordes of old
men, old women, the sick, and the frail, with children of all ages
marching mile after mile, often in cold and rain with no food except
what they had been able to seize as they were driven on a moment's
notice from their homes and villages, leaving their strong men brutally
slaughtered, have been called red caravans of death, and in truth
they were caravans of victims seeking, desiring, praying for death, and
marching on till death relieved them.

In 1915, the Turkish armies in Palestine, under German leadership,
attempted to gain possession of the Suez Canal, in order to prevent
supplies passing through on Allied ships. Although the Turks made
several attempts to block the canal, they were all unsuccessful. After
these numerous attacks on the canal, England realized that the only
safe way to protect her Egyptian possessions was to gain Palestine. In
1916 a plan was made for an offensive into the Holy Land. The plan was
first tried by General Maxwell and then by General Murray, but both
attempts were unsuccessful.

In June, 1917, the English transferred General Allenby, then fighting
on the western front, to the command of the Egyptian expeditionary
forces. He immediately began to lay plans for an offensive into
Palestine, with the city of Jerusalem as his main objective. The Turks
were strongly fortified in southern Palestine, on a line extending from
the coast city of Gaza to the inland city of Beersheba. Allenby's plan
was to attack the left flank of the enemies' line, capturing Beersheba,
where he counted on renewing his water supply. To aid the successful
advancement of his main offense, he sent a small body of troops toward
the city of Gaza, situated on the enemies' right flank. This was done
to draw the Turkish reserves toward Gaza, where they would expect the
main offense to take place. The British warships in the Mediterranean
helped in this movement, by bombarding the town as the land forces
approached it. The plan was put into effect on October 30. On the
next day the city of Beersheba was taken by surprise, and the Turkish
left flank was routed. After renewing his supply of water at
Beersheba, General Allenby advanced on Gaza, which was captured with
little resistance. Although greatly hampered by poor water supply and
tremendous transportation difficulties, he drove the Turks north and by
a successful engagement at Junction Station cut their forces in two.

By this time the Turks in Jerusalem were becoming greatly disturbed by
Allenby's rapid advance. Enver Pasha, the famous Turkish commander,
rushed to the city to rally his generals, but after studying the
situation, he left the city the next day. Soon after Enver's hurried
departure, General Falkenhayn arrived. Military supplies were moved
north of the city and the Germans prepared to leave. The remaining
Turks were under the command of Ali Fuad Pasha, who by proclamations
and entreaties, tried to rally the people of the city.

Meanwhile General Allenby had moved north and captured the city of
Jaffa, situated on the Mediterranean, a little northwest of Jerusalem.
From Jaffa, by hard fighting he advanced through the Judean hills,
towards the Holy City. Jerusalem was occupied by English troops on
December 9, 1917, and General Allenby made his official entrance on
December 11. Soon after the occupation of the city by the English, a
proclamation was read, amidst great cheering, announcing freedom of
worship.

[Illustration: The official entry of General Allenby into Jerusalem,
December 11, 1917. With the exception of a few years, 1099-1187, and
1229-1244, the city, until General Allenby's entry, had been under
Mohammedan control from the seventh century. The clock tower is a
modernized minaret, on the balcony of which the muezzin summons to
prayer the faithful Mohammedans.]

Part of the proclamation is as follows. Since your city is regarded
with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions of
mankind, and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and
pilgrimages of multitudes of devout people of these three religions for
many centuries, therefore, do I make it known to you that every sacred
building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment,
pious bequest, or customary place of prayer of whatsoever form of the
three religions will be maintained and protected according to the
existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred.

The capture of Jerusalem was hailed by the entire civilized world as
one of the greatest accomplishments of the war. Although it was taken
for strategical reasons, the fact that the Holy City was once more in
the hands of Christians meant more to the world than the military
advantage gained by its capture. Jerusalem is generally thought of
only as a peaceful shrine of many nations; it is in reality a fortress
more often contested, perhaps, than any other city in the world. Until
captured by General Allenby, Jerusalem had been, except for two brief
intervals, under Mohammedan control for almost thirteen centuries. Now
that it is once more in Christian hands, it appears probable that it
will remain so forever.

After capturing the city, the English began to strengthen its
fortifications against counter-attacks. They also fortified the coast
city of Jaffa which they had captured just previous to the advance on
Jerusalem. The Turks made several attempts to recapture their lost
ground, but all were unsuccessful. The English were unable to resume
their offensive the following spring, because of the crisis which
compelled them to send a large part of their forces to Europe to check
the new German drive on the western front. It was not until September
18, 1918, that General Allenby started his next offensive. The object
of this was the capture of Damascus, the capital of Syria. He started
his advance on a line extending from Haifa on the coast, across
Palestine to the Arabian Desert. Although strongly opposed by a
Turkish army numbering at least 100,000 men, he advanced by remarkable
forced marching and hard fighting on Damascus, which he occupied
October 1, 1918. During the offensive on Damascus, he captured over
70,000 prisoners and 350 guns. Included in these figures were several
Turkish commanders and German and Austrian troops numbering more than
200 officers and 3000 privates.

Damascus is the most beautiful city in Asiatic Turkey and is the oldest
city in the world. There is a Turkish prophecy, many centuries old,
made in fact when the Turks were at the height of their power, that
some day they would be conquered and driven back to the place from
which they came. The prophet said, When the end is at hand, Damascus
will be taken by the infidels. An Imam wearing a green turban and a
green robe will ascend to the top of a green minaret with his last
salavat. He will call all the faithful about him and they will all
then start on a journey to the place from whence they came.

Because of this prophecy, there is a Turkish saying known to all Turks
educated or ignorant, dweller in city or in obscure village, which
reads, Evelli Sham, Akhuri Sham. Now Sham is the Turk's name for
Damascus, Evelli means first, and Akhuri means last: and the
meaning of the saying in English would be something like this,
Damascus is everything to the Turk, and when it falls all is lost.
Probably the prophet had no idea that Damascus would or could be taken
from the south by forces led across the desert as General Allenby led
the English. If Damascus should be captured from the north, all of the
Turkish dominion would have to be conquered before the foe reached
there. So the Turks have repeated with a feeling of security, Evelli
Sham, Akhuri Sham.

The capture of Damascus opened the way to Aleppo, situated on the
Constantinople-Bagdad railroad about 180 miles to the north. The
Turkish troops, routed by the rapid advance of the British on Damascus,
gave very little resistance to Allenby in his drive on Aleppo. The
English entered Aleppo on Saturday morning, October 26, and stopped
Turkish traffic on the Constantinople-Bagdad railway at this point. On
October 29, General Marshall's forces defeated the Turks at Kaleh
Sherghat, cutting off their communications with Mosul. The combined
victories of Allenby in Palestine and Marshall in Mesopotamia left the
remaining Turkish forces helpless. Turkey signed an armistice October
30, 1918, which was virtually the same as an unconditional surrender,
and meant the end of the unspeakable Turk in Europe.





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